A French literary society founded in 1900, consisting of ten members. It awards the Prix Goncourt.
The English Royal Academy of Arts was founded in 1768 by George III for the establishment of an art school and the holding of annual exhibitions of works by living artists.
The Royal Spanish Academy was founded at Madrid in 1713 for purposes similar to those of the French Academy.
The American Academy of Arts and Letters was founded in 1904 with a like purpose. Its membership is limited to fifty. They are chosen from the National Institute of Arts and Letters.
There is also a Royal Academy of Science at Berlin (founded 1700), at Stockholm (the Royal Swedish Academy, founded 1739), and at Copenhagen (founded 1742).
The Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petrograd was established by Catherine I in 1725.